at sea off the coast of Japan.
Probably part of a species-group centred on O. manadensis (which see). Formerly treated as conspecific with O. sunia, and until recently placed in O. scops, but separated specifically on basis of vocal characteristics and morphology (comparatively larger feet); has recently been included in O. manadensis, perhaps in error. S race calayensis (said to be morphologically distinct#R#R) placed with O. mantananensis by some, but seems closer to present species, at least on vocal and geographical grounds; interpositus merged with nominate by some authors. Batan population sometimes separated as race batanensis. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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