no locality = Suriname.
Races form two possibly specifically distinct groups, “flaveola group” and “pelzelni group”, differing dramatically in female and immature plumages and less so in male plumage; also, former group exhibits weak and latter strong sexual dimorphism; further research required. Disjunct trans-Andean valida possibly also a distinct species, meriting detailed assessment. Birds of higher areas of S Bolivia currently included in race pelzelni, but may belong in koenigi. Proposed taxon S. striata (described from Buenos Aires, in Argentina) invalid, based on a specimen regarded as a breeding male of race pelzelni in immature plumage. Five subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!