J. F. Gmelin, 1789,
Geographical variation within each race largely clinal, becoming more complex in insular areas (especially Canary Is); race leucogastra sometimes synonymized with nominate, but detailed study#R suggests its revalidation, although this rejected by others#R#R; variation (in colour and size) within islands, however, noticeable and demands further work. Recently described race valverdei#R represents a new stage in variability of the species, probably related to particular ecological conditions in Sahara Desert. Proposed races pasiphae (described from Crete) and carmichaellowi (SE Italy) considered to fall within range of variation of nominate, and included within it. Race †norrisae extinct. Four extant subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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