J. F. Gmelin, 1789,
Unalaska, Alaska, USA.
Traditionally treated as conspecific with P. guttatus and P. rostratus, and often also with P. sanctorum, but all differ in morphology and plumage and, to some extent, in ecology; separation at species level supported by recent genetic findings. Race princeps has been considered a separate species. Geographical variation of nominate race largely clinal: other proposed races are, from Canada, anthinus (described from Kodiak I, in Alaska), crassus (Sitka, in Alaska), brooksi (Chilliwack, in British Columbia), oblitus (Fort Churchill, in Manitoba) and labradorius (L’Anse-au-Loup, in Labrador), from USA, mediogriseus (Ashtabula County, in extreme NE Ohio), alaudinus (California, probably San Francisco), nevadensis (Soldier Meadows, Humboldt County, in NW Nevada) and savanna (Savannah, in E Georgia), from Mexico, rufofuscus (Babicora, in Chihuahua) and brunnescens (Valley of Mexico), and from W Guatemala, †wetmorei (Hacienda Chancol); all of which are synonymized with nominate. Two subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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