J. F. Gmelin, 1788,
Traditionally combined in a species-group with A. butleri and A. brevipes, and often also A. soloensis and A. francesiae. Recent phylogenetic analyses#R found that these species (except A. butleri, for which no molecular data available) clustered together, but were not all closely related; rather, present species and A. brevipes formed one clade and A. soloensis and A. francesiae comprised another clade. Formerly considered conspecific with A. brevipes, but the two breed sympatrically in Armenia#R#R; an apparent hybrid between the two species recorded in S Israel#R. Has sometimes been considered to include A. butleri as a race. African races sphenurus and polyzonoides suggested as possibly representing a separate species, differing from Asian races in morphology and vocalizations#R. Six subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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