Closely related to A. castelnaudii and perhaps A. aliciae. Morphological variation suggests past gene flow with A. castelnaudii, but nowadays reproductively isolated in the zone of overlap. Occasionally considered to include A. aliciae as a race. Otherwise, up to six races have been accepted, aequatorialis (N & C Ecuador), parvula (S Ecuador, N Peru) and cajabambae and ruficauda (both of NC Peru) replacing one another, but morphometric and plumage characters strongly indicate clinal variation. Two subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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