C. L. Brehm, 1820,
Roda Valley, Thuringia, Germany.
Recent genetic evidence (cytochrome b) indicates that this species is closest to C. americana. Geographical variation slight and largely clinal, but N African race mauritanica exhibits moderately well-marked genetic and vocal differences from European races and may merit separate species status; further study required. Nominate race and megarhynchos intergrade in C Pyrenees, W & S Spain and S Portugal. Proposed races harterti (NW Turkey) and stresemanni (N Turkey) included in nominate, although situation in Asia Minor complicated and difficult to resolve due to relative lack of good specimen material#R#R; proposed race spatzi#R (Omalos Plateau, Crete) inseparable from dorotheae#R. Five subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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