Europae alpinis sylvis = Sweden.
Geographical variation complex, with clines in colour tones, greyest in C Siberia and becoming more rufous towards W and again towards E, but tones and extent of rufous in wing vary also from S to N; further, clinal intergradation has created much taxonomic confusion in terms of number of races that should be recognized, various reviews allowing as many as 17 or as few as 4–5#R. Conservative assessment suggests that manteufeli (upper R Severnya Dvina, in NW Russia) be included in nominate; monjerensis (lower R Yenisey to Olenek Basin, in C Siberia) in rogosowi; bungei (NC Siberia between lower R Lena and lower R Kolyma) and sokolnikowi (NE Siberia) in yakutensis; suschkini (Transbaikalia, Russia) in sibericus; varnak (NE China and middle R Amur, in SE Russia) in tkachenkoi; and sakhalinensis (Sakhalin) in maritimus. Name rogosowi appears to have been selected over simultaneously named ostjakorum by First Revisers#R. Nine subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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