Closely related to H. caudacutus, with which was in the past sometimes considered conspecific. Geographical variation very weakly defined: race rupchandi said to be slightly paler below though with darker throat than nominate#R, but poorly differentiated; formosanus, formerly placed in H. caudacutus, has been shown to be virtually identical to nominate race of present species and may be better treated as synonymous with it (grounds for racial split appear to be merely its isolated distribution). Single specimen from W Java, previously separated as form ernsti and treated variously as a distinct species or as a race of H. giganteus, now synonymized with nominate race of present species. Three subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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