Sister to P. igneus#R; sometimes considered conspecific, but little evidence of interbreeding where ranges meet in peninsular Thailand, and different habitat preferences may prevent direct contact. View expressed in HBW that “isolated race saturatus possibly represents a different species, primarily on grounds of zoogeography” not supported by morphological evidence, and other avian taxa show similar ranges involving disjunct representatives on Java. Race peregrinus intergrades with pallidus and vividus in N Indian Subcontinent. Race separatus may be better included in vividus, as its supposedly large bill may be individually variable. Andaman population may merit treatment as separate race, for which name osmastoni recently proposed; further study required. Nine subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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