Family Cuckoos (Cuculidae)

Least Concern

Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani)


French: Ani à bec lisse German: Glattschnabelani Spanish: Garrapatero aní

Crotophaga Ani


, 1758,



Study of cranial osteology indicated that this species is sister to C. sulcirostris#R. Monotypic.


SE USA (C & S Florida), Bahamas, Caribbean islands, Trinidad, Tobago; locally in Mexico (Cozumel I and adjacent mainland Quintana Roo), Costa Rica and Panama, and S on W coast to Ecuador and, E of Andes, from Venezuela and the Guianas through E South American lowlands to N Uruguay and Chaco to N Argentina.

Descriptive notes

33–35 cm; male 88–222 g, female 76–112 g. Adult glossy black; skin around eye black, iris brown to black; bill high-arched and laterally compressed into thin keel... read more


Whining whistle, “oueee”, rising in pitch and often given in flight; querulous “... read more


Second-growth scrub, river-island scrub, humid areas, clearings in humid forests and cloud forests... read more

Food and feeding

Insects, mainly grasshoppers, also mantids, fireflies, beetles including weevil root-borers (insect pests of sugarcane and citrus orchards... read more


Breeds May–Oct in Florida, all year in Puerto Rico and Surinam, during rains in Cuba and Central America (after herbs grown and... read more


Resident or locally nomadic. Post-breeding dispersive movements out of breeding range.

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Generally common. First established and bred in Florida in 1938, spread N along Florida coasts in 1960s, and now a well established... read more

Recommended citation

Payne, R. & Kirwan, G.M. (2019). Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 14 December 2019).