DeLattre and Bourcier, 1846,
Isthmus of Panama.
Sometimes placed in genus Saucerottia. Race niveoventer has been considered a distinct species, on basis mainly of purplish-black vs coppery tail coloration (score 3) and, in this character, lack of intergradation with other races owing to strictly allopatric distribution; but only other character appears to be somewhat greener, less coppery back (possibly 1), so strong acoustic differentiation probably needed to justify species status. Individuals with characters intermediate between nominate edward and race margaritarum have been reported from contact zone in E Panama. Two questionable races were described from mainland of Panama: form crosbyi (of Darién, in E Panama) was separated by tail coloration from race margaritarum, but is indistinguishable from it, as the characters of most individuals of the type series can be accounted for by juvenile plumage; ludibunda, described from a single specimen from Pesé (in Azuero Peninsula, C Panama), was collected within E range of niveoventer and represents an aberrant example of this race. Four subspecies recognized.
Doubtfully recorded in Ecuador (Santo Domingo), perhaps race margaritarum.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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