Family Pigeons, Doves (Columbidae)

Extinct in the Wild

Socorro Dove (Zenaida graysoni)


French: Tourterelle de Socorro German: Socorrotaube Spanish: Zenaida de Socorro
Other common names: Grayson's Dove

Zenaidura graysoni


, 1871,

Socorro Island


Formerly placed in genus Zenaidura, along with Z. auriculata and Z. macroura, and these three are clearly close relatives, as confirmed by genetic evidence#R. Until recently considered conspecific with Z. macroura, but captive studies revealed distinct differences in visual displays and vocalizations; the two species mate assortatively in captivity; hybrids produced by cross-fostering present species under Z. macroura, with resultant sexual imprinting on the latter. Differs from all forms of Z. macroura in all-rufous underparts including undertail-coverts (3), much reduced or no glossy neck-patches (3), and larger foot and bill size (at least 1). Monotypic.


Formerly Socorro I in Revillagigedo Archipelago (off W Mexico); now extinct in wild.

Descriptive notes

26·5–34 cm; 165–215 g. A medium-sized dove, mostly ruddy brown in coloration with bluish grey crown and nape; tail less graduated than in Z. macroura... read more


Data pertain to captive birds. Advertising call described as a slightly growling phrase, longer... read more


Formerly occurred in highland forest at 500–600 m on Socorro I; rarer in lowlands, where... read more

Food and feeding

Crop contents of wild individuals included fruits of native cherry (Bumelia socorroensis) and currant (Prunus capuli), as... read more


Virtually nothing known about breeding in the wild. Captives breed in nestboxes placed 1–2·5 m above ground; incubation c. 14... read more


Apparently seasonal differences in habitat preference. Formerly abundant in highlands of Socorro I... read more

Status and conservation

EXTINCT IN THE WILD. Extirpated in the wild at some stage after Mar 1972, when last observations of wild individuals were made; surveys of Socorro I from Apr 1978 until the... read more

Recommended citation

Baptista, L.F., Trail, P.W., Horblit, H.M. & Boesman, P. (2018). Socorro Dove (Zenaida graysoni). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 19 October 2018).