Family New World Blackbirds (Icteridae)

Least Concern

Solitary Cacique (Cacicus solitarius)


French: Cassique solitaire German: Stahlkassike Spanish: Cacique solitario
Other common names: Solitary Black Cacique

Cassicus solitarius


, 1816,



Formerly included in genus Archiplanus. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny#R recovered present species as sister to all other Cacicus plus those formerly in Clypicterus and Ocyalus; genus Procacicus was erected#R in recognition of the species’ unique position, but monophyly of Cacicus is not threatened by its inclusion therein, while morphological and other differences from the remaining caciques are only weakly expressed#R. Monotypic.


SW Venezuela (Táchira, Apure) S through E Colombia (Meta), E Ecuador and E Peru, Brazil (S of Amazon E to Ceará, Pernambuco and W Bahia; perhaps locally N of R Amazon on R Branco, in Roraima) S to C & E Bolivia, Chaco of Paraguay, N & E Argentina (S to Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires) and W Uruguay (locally along R Uruguay).

Descriptive notes

Male average 27·5 cm, 90·1 g; female average 23·5 cm, 80 g. Plumage is entirely black, with slight gloss; iris brown to chestnut-brown, exceptionally... read more


Song variable, with considerable individual repertoires. Song around nest usually starts with a... read more


Mostly occurs in flooded forest and gallery forest along rivers and channels, extending to dense... read more

Food and feeding

Insects and other arthropods; also small vertebrates, particularly tree-frogs (Hylidae); also fruits and nectar. Insects include e.g.... read more


Season Oct–Jan in C Brazil and Oct–Dec in Argentina; in Argentina reported as double-brooded. Monogamous. Solitary nester, but older... read more


Apparently resident throughout range.

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened. Rather common in S part of range (R Paraná and R Paraguay basins); less abundant elsewhere. Tolerates moderate habitat disturbance, in... read more

Recommended citation

Fraga, R. (2020). Solitary Cacique (Cacicus solitarius). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 25 February 2020).