Camamú, Bahia, Brazil.
Birds from Sierra de Perijá (W Venezuela) described as race zuliae and birds from Trinidad as fumosa, but both considered undiagnosable, as mensural and plumage characteristics variable throughout range of species. Monotypic.
N & NC Colombia (Santa Marta Mts#R, W slope of E Andes#R and N part of C Andes#R), W & N Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá, N end of E slope of Andes, and Coastal Range from E Falcón and Carabobo E to Sucre; also Cerro Roraima, in E Bolívar); Trinidad; S Guyana; and E & SW Brazil (SW Mato Grosso, Maranhão and Ceará to NE Goiás and Piauí; Pernambuco S to Santa Catarina), E Paraguay and extreme NE Argentina (Misiones).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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