Until recently, considered conspecific with A. mantelli and hitherto undescribed A. rowi, but all three taxa now treated as full species. A. australis differs from other taxa previously lumped with it in having grey, rufous or dark brown vs brown plumage (1); soft vs stiff feather tips (2); <7 vs 17 large tarsal scutes (3); short vs long facial bristles (2); presence of unique species of feather louse (= ecological difference)#R (1). Various genetic studies show the three to be well separated#R#R#R#R. Nominate race further divides into two genetically well-separated populations, based respectively on Haast R (plumage distinctively rufous) and Fiordland (plumage grey-brown)#R#R. Two subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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