Himalayas = Simla–Almora district.
Hitherto treated as conspecific with (albeit forming its own group within) N. caryocatactes, but differs in its greatly reduced white spotting on back and underparts (2); much darker brown crown (2); lack of white tail tips but much greater length of white on outer rectrices (3); longer tail (effect size of nominate vs N. c. macrorhynchos 5.14, score 3); much slower rattle-call (0.032–0.042 [n=8] sec vs 0.017–0.023 sec [n=6], both involving recordings from across respective ranges) (3)#R. Usually treated as conspecific with N. multipunctata; intermediate individuals extremely rare. Nominate hemispila intergrades with macella in Darjeeling area of N India. Proposed race yunnanensis (Yunnan, in S China) included in macella. Four subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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