Family Hornbills (Bucerotidae)


Southern Rufous Hornbill (Buceros mindanensis)


French: Calao de Tweeddale German: Süd-Feuerhornvogel Spanish: Cálao rojizo sureño
Other common names: Great Mindanao Hornbill (mindanensis), Great Samar Hornbill (race semigaleatus)

Buceros mindanensis


, 1877,

Pasananca, Mindanao


Hitherto considered conspecific with B. hydrocorax, but differs in its yellow vs red distal half of bill (3); differently coloured circumorbital skin (yellow and black vs yellow) (1); juvenile tail with black base vs with black central band (3); smaller size (at least 1). Race semigaleatus itself fairly distinct. Basilan birds described as race basilanicus, but appear inseparable from nominate mindanensis. Two subspecies recognized.

What do (1) and (2) mean? Learn more about the scoring system.
Subspecies and Distribution
  • B. m. semigaleatus Tweeddale, 1878 – Samar, Calicoan, Buad, Biliran, Leyte, Bohol and Panaon, in EC Philippines.
  • B. m. mindanensis Tweeddale, 1877 – Dinagat, Siargao, Bucas, Mindanao, Talicud, Balut and Basilan, in SE Philippines.
  • Descriptive notes

    60–65 cm; male 1345–1612 g, female 1413–1662 g (nominate), male 1185–1550 g, female 1017–1652 g (race semigaleatus). Large, mostly rufous hornbill with black face... read more


    No known differences between this species and B. hydrocorax.


    Occurs largely in primary evergreen forests, locally in mature secondary and selectively logged... read more

    Food and feeding

    Mostly feeds on seeds and fruit, with up to 94% of diet comprised of fruit (e.g. wild figs and feral guavas); also takes some insects and... read more


    Little known. Estimated to lay in Mar–Apr and Aug on Mindanao (nominate) and May on Leyte (race semigaleatus). Monogamous and co-... read more


    Apparently chiefly sedentary, as suggested by shorter, narrower wings than other Buceros;... read more

    Status and conservation

    VULNERABLE. Previously considered Near Threatened (when treated as conspecific with B. hydrocorax). CITES II. Population size has not been quantified, but the... read more

    Recommended citation

    del Hoyo, J., Collar, N. & Kirwan, G.M. (2020). Southern Rufous Hornbill (Buceros mindanensis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 29 February 2020).