Hitherto treated as conspecific with M. maculatus, but differs in its greatly reduced ochre-rufous in overall plumage#R, including on edges of wings and tail (2); much broader and deeper (blackish vs dark brown) streaking on upperparts and underparts, turning crown and tail largely black (2); a five-note dawn song in which last note is low-pitched and rising vs high-pitched and rising (3); and a daytime call consisting of an upslurred “quit” vs an overslurred “kuk” (much greater maximum frequency in former: 4)#R. Apparent intermediate forms from N Brazil (S Amazonas) merit investigation, but do not affect this revised status. Monotypic.
CE & SE Peru and C & E Brazil S to E Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina (S to La Rioja, San Luis, La Pampa and N Buenos Aires) and Uruguay; S populations migrate N.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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