Hitherto treated as conspecific with P. albipennis but here given species status since it lacks the broad white wingband of albipennis formed by broad white edges to outer wing-coverts (3); has darker brown-grey wing-coverts with more pronounced white spotting (2); shorter bill, effect size 2.39 (2); in addition, iris may be darker (NHMUK label data). The two probably also differ in ecology since maculosa only occurs below 1000 m. and this species is only encountered above 2000 m. Related to P. picazuro. Monotypic.
SE Bolivia (Santa Cruz, Tarija), Paraguay, S Brazil (S Rio Grande do Sul) and Uruguay S to SC Argentina.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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