Family New World Quails (Odontophoridae)

Least Concern

Spot-winged Wood-quail (Odontophorus capueira)

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Taxonomy

French: Tocro uru German: Capueirawachtel Spanish: Corcovado urú
Taxonomy:

Perdix capueira

Spix

, 1825,

Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, Brazil

.

Race plumbeicollis not well defined and possibly undiagnosable, seemingly based on a unique type#R. Two subspecies tentatively recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • O. c. plumbeicollis Cory, 1915 – NE Brazil (Ceará, Paraíba#R and Alagoas).
  • O. c. capueira (Spix, 1825) – E Paraguay, extreme NE Argentina (Misiones) and E Brazil (Bahia S to SE Mato Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul).
  • Descriptive notes

    26·5–30 cm#R; estimated weight of male 457 g, of female 396 g. Bright red bare eyering and eyelid. Sides of head, malar region, chin, throat, breast and belly plain grey; overall colour brown to grey. Crest and crown chestnut; forehead and supercilium tawny. Back brown, with white shaft-streaks; scapulars chestnut, with white shaft-streaks; rump tawny with black spots; flight feathers black with white spots. Bill black, legs grey-black. Female similar, but slightly more slender. Immature has wider shaft-streaks on back; black spots on rump coarser, breast grey and belly reddish brown. Race plumbeicollis has underparts paler with buff tone; supercilium and white shaft-streaks on upper back are rather less prominent, and throat and foreneck are vermiculated blackish#R.

    Drawing by Àngels Jutglar
    Descriptive notes:

    26·5–30 cm#R; estimated weight of male 457 g, of female 396 g. Bright red bare eyering and eyelid. Sides of head, malar region, chin, throat, breast and belly plain grey; overall colour brown to grey. Crest and crown chestnut; forehead and supercilium tawny. Back brown, with white shaft-streaks; scapulars chestnut, with white shaft-streaks; rump tawny with black spots; flight feathers black with white spots. Bill black, legs grey-black. Female similar, but slightly more slender. Immature has wider shaft-streaks on back; black spots on rump coarser, breast grey and belly reddish brown. Race plumbeicollis has underparts paler with buff tone; supercilium and white shaft-streaks on upper back are rather less prominent, and throat and foreneck are vermiculated blackish#R.

    Voice

    Advertising call is a rather slow, repeated and far-carrying “uru...uru...uru...uru...”, which is given in duet, commenced by male uttering a monosyllabic “kloh-kloh-kloh”; it is most frequently heard close to dawn and dusk, especially on moonlit nights, but also heard irregularly at other times of day#R. Also gives loud “wit, wit, wit” in alarm and a tremulous, weak-sounding “bew, bew, bew” at roost in tree#R.

    Habitat

    Atlantic lowland tropical forest, including second-growth forest, to at least 1600 m#R. Found on forest floor.

    Food and feeding

    Berries, especially Phytolacca decandra (Phytolaccaceae); also nuts of Araucaria (Araucariaceae) on forest floor, and presumably some insects#R. Forms coveys of up to 6–8 birds, less usually 10–15, throughout the year#R.

    Breeding

    Lays Aug–Nov at least; nest in state of São Paulo in Feb. Monogamous#R. Nests on ground, sometimes in armadillo holes. In captivity: domed nest of 40 cm × 50 cm with side entrance#R was constructed; 3–5#R eggs laid (smaller clutch in replacement)#R; eggs hatched after incubation period of 26–27 days. Clutches of up to 12 reported, perhaps indicate that more than one female may lay in same nest#R. Incubation (by female alone)#R reported as 18–19 days in wild, and female also takes sole care for chicks#R. Eggs white, often stained yellow or red by dirt; mean size 40·1 mm × 29·1 mm.

    Movements

    Presumably sedentary.

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Mace Lande: Safe. Considered threatened in state of Minas Gerais#R and is virtually extinct in lowlands of Rio de Janeiro#R. Very little information available; total population might number fewer than 50,000 birds, and declining. Much reduced in interior of Brazil, and now restricted mainly to protected Atlantic coastal forests; populations of NE Brazil appear to be those most at risk. Reported common in some places where habitat protected. Major threats include deforestation and hunting. Very few recent records from Argentina and Paraguay. Extensive surveys required. Some 26 birds known to be held in captivity.

    Recommended citation

    Carroll, J.P. & Kirwan, G.M. (2018). Spot-winged Wood-quail (Odontophorus capueira). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/53351 on 16 December 2018).