Brazil; error = Cayenne.
Recent study#R established form whittakeri as full species and proposed split of other races into two further biological species, H. paraensis and H. macularius (with dilutus as a race); however, differences in plumage and morphometrics are all minor or non-existent (with latter untestable as no standard deviations provided), and vocal differences in general relatively minor, with whittakeri the most distinctive but on basis of published evidence vs nominate effect size for number of notes −4.57 (2) and for pace −4.24 (2)#R. All taxa therefore retained here as conspecific. Name dilutus previously treated as synonym of paraensis, but shown to apply to the form previously listed under the younger name diversus#R. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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