French: Tohi tacheté German: Fleckengrundammer Spanish: Toquí moteado
Real del Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico
Subspecies and Distribution
P. m. oregonus
Bell, 1849 – extreme SW Canada (SW British Columbia) S in W USA to SW Oregon; non-breeding S to S California.
P. m. falcinellus
Swarth, 1913 – interior & SW Oregon S to California (W & SE slopes of Sierra Nevada).
P. m. falcifer
McGregor, 1900 – coastal N California (S to Santa Cruz and San Benito Counties).
P. m. megalonyx
S. F. Baird, 1858 – coastal S California from Monterey and Kern Counties S, including Santa Cruz I, to extreme NW Mexico (NW Baja California S to 32° N).
P. m. clementae
Grinnell, 1897 – Santa Rosa, Santa Catalina and San Clemente Is, off SW California.
P. m. umbraticola
Grinnell & Swarth, 1926 – N Baja California (32° N S to 30° N).
P. m. consobrinus
Ridgway, 1876 – Guadalupe I, off W Baja California.
P. m. magnirostris
Brewster, 1891 – Sierra de la Laguna, S Baja California Sur, Mexico.
P. m. arcticus
(Swainson, 1832) – SW Canada (C Alberta and C Saskatchewan) S in USA (E of Rocky Mts) to SE Wyoming, NE Colorado, C Nebraska and NW Kansas; non-breeding mainly S USA from C Arizona (rare) and SW New Mexico E to W Iowa, W Missouri and S Texas, S in Mexico to C Chihuahua and C Nuevo León.
P. m. curtatus
Grinnell, 1911 – N Great Basin in SW Canada (interior S British Columbia) and NW USA (N Idaho S to NE California, C Nevada and SE Idaho); non-breeding S to SE California and SE Arizona.
P. m. montanus
Swarth, 1905 – S Great Basin and Rocky Mts region from SE California E to SE Nevada, N Utah, NC Colorado, NE New Mexico and W Oklahoma, S to SC Arizona and N Mexico (NE Sonora and NW Chihuahua); non-breeding S to N Sonora, C Chihuahua and CS Texas.
P. m. gaigei
Van Tyne & Sutton, 1937 – S USA (E & SE New Mexico and W Texas) and adjacent N Mexico (N Coahuila).
P. m. griseipygius
van Rossem, 1934 – Sierra Madre Occidental from SW Chihuahua (29° N) S through E Sinaloa and W Durango to NE Nayarit and W Zacatecas (W Mexico).
P. m. orientalis
Sibley, 1950 – Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico from SE Coahuila, C Nuevo León and SW Tamaulipas S to NE Guanajuato, Querétaro and N Hidalgo (E Mexico).
P. m. maculatus
Swainson, 1827 – Spotted Towhee – highlands of SE Tlaxcala, WC Veracruz and E Puebla, in E Mexico.
P. m. macronyx
Swainson, 1827 – Olive-backed Towhee – mountains on W & SW sides of Valley of Mexico (in E Michoacán, México, NW Morelos and Distrito Federal).
P. m. vulcanorum
Sibley, 1950 – mountains on SE side of Valley of Mexico (in México, NE Morelos, SW Tlaxcala and W Puebla).
P. m. oaxacae
Sibley, 1950 – highlands of N & C Oaxaca, in S Mexico.
P. m. chiapensis
van Rossem, 1938 – mountains of C Chiapas, in SE Mexico.
P. m. repetens
Griscom, 1930 – SE Chiapas (Volcán Tacaná) and Pacific cordillera of Guatemala.
17·7–21·3 cm; 30·6–49 g. Large, long-tailed sparrow with white spots on upperwing-coverts. Male nominate race has head and chest black,... read more
Song variable, but typically two “chip” notes followed by a trill, “chup chup... read more
Dense deciduous or mixed thickets; high-altitude mixed forest and pine–oak–fir (... read more
Food and feeding
Diet in breeding season primarily insects, including beetles (Coleoptera), crickets (Orthoptera), bugs (Hemiptera, including homopterans),... read more
Season mid Apr to late Jul in most of USA, although song and territorial behaviour by early Mar in coastal California, and breeding... read more
NE interior populations (race arcticus) migratory, and coastal, insular and Mexican... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Generally common to fairly common. Race consobrinus, confined to Guadalupe I, off Baja California, extinct. Race ... read more
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