DNA data indicate that present species is sister to I. bullockiorum. Races divided into three groups, “pustulatus group” (nominate race and microstictus) in N of range, single-taxon “graysonii group” on Tres Marías Is (off WC Mexico) and “sclateri group” (formosus, maximus, alticola, sclateri and pustuloides) in S of range. Mitochondrial DNA divergence within and between two mainland groups slight and plumage variation considerable; and insular graysonii, isolated for longer time and more distinctive in plumage, seems also too variable to register consistent and strong diagnostic characters for separation under Tobias criteria. In Mexico, birds from S Sinaloa S to S Nayarit sometimes separated as race yaegeri, those from SW Jalisco S to S Guerrero in dickermani, and birds of interior C & S Mexico in interior, but diagnostic characters of these uncertain. Other proposed races are flammulatus (described from Monte Redondo, in Honduras), subsumed into alticola, and connectens (interior El Salvador), which is intermediate between alticola and sclateri, and is merged with latter. Eight subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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