J. F. Gmelin, 1789,
north-eastern Brazil = Ceará.
See T. argentea. Hitherto treated as conspecific with T. cayana, but differs in its black throat, central breast and central belly (3); rich tan vs blue-grey-tinged buffy flanks (2); and paler tan crown and darker burnished-buff mantle and back, producing far less contrast between the two (2); female, conversely, less strongly defined than female T. cayana, with a duller, dirtier rufous crown and a much weaker dark “face”. Race huberi apparently intermediate but may represent a hybrid or hybrid population, and need not be considered an obstacle to the separation of the very distinct present species, to which huberi is here tentatively assigned. Five subspecies recognized.