M. H. C. Lichtenstein, 1820,
no locality = State of Pará, Brazil.
Relationships uncertain; on basis of molecular data, earlier thought perhaps to be ancestral to a morphologically variable clade that included X. susurrans, X. guttatus, X. flavigaster and X. lachrymosus, and possibly also X. erythropygius and X. triangularis. Assessment of race notatus complicated by marked individual variation in coloration, and intergradation over seemingly wide area with both nominate and palliatus; birds from R Purus drainage (possibly also R Madeira), in W Brazil, sometimes recognized as race multiguttatus, but intermediate between nominate and palliatus. Race caicarae poorly differentiated (relative to nominate) and with biogeographically unlikely range; doubtfully valid. Original description of race palliatus in issue dated 1855, but not published till 1856#R. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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