no locality = “Bogotá”, Colombia.
Closest to X. albicollis. Races usually divided into three groups, treated as separate species by some authors: “emigrans group” (Middle America), “promeropirhynchus group” (mountains of W & N South America), and “orenocensis group” (primarily Amazonian lowlands). Populations in mountains of N South America may be closer to those in Amazonian lowlands than to those in Peruvian and Bolivian Andes; affinities of race crassirostris problematic, possibly allied with “orenocensis group” but occurring W of Andes. Assessment of geographical variation complicated by marked individual variation within taxa. Race ignotus sometimes merged with nominate; rostratus is perhaps a synonym of fortis; virgatus poorly defined, intergrades with nominate on E slope of C Colombian Andes; and sanctaemartae very similar to procerus; racial identity of birds in Guianan lowlands uncertain, tentatively placed with tenebrosus. Vocalizations of Middle American, Andean and Amazonian populations remarkably similar, given degree of morphological differentiation; in contrast, some songs in S Mexico (Oaxaca) and in C Andes of Colombia (R Cauca slope) appear very different from the species’ “typical” songs#R. Thorough taxonomic revision needed. Published records from N Argentina apparently referable to misidentified Dendrocolaptes picumnus. Twenty-five subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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