Family Pigeons, Doves (Columbidae)

Least Concern

Sulawesi Ground-dove (Gallicolumba tristigmata)


French: Gallicolombe tristigmate German: Hopftaube Spanish: Paloma perdiz de Célebes
Other common names: Sulawesi Quail-dove

Columba tristigmata


, 1855,

Tondano, Sulawesi


A distinctive form of uncertain affinities, considered to be most closely allied to the bleeding-heart group (G. luzonica and allies) and to G. rufigula; has been placed in its own subgenus, Diopezus, by some authorities. Two S forms bimaculata and auripectus are rather distinct from nominate, with broken, not complete, chocolate-russet hindcollar (not a striking difference; 2); yellowish vs whitish forehead (but this not fully constant; thus 1); grey vs brown on basal two-thirds of rectrices (except central), so dark subterminal bar shows more distinctly (2). Form auripectus perhaps inseparable from bimaculata#R#R. Three subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • G. t. tristigmata (Bonaparte, 1855) – N & NC Sulawesi.
  • G. t. bimaculata (Salvadori, 1892) – S Sulawesi.
  • G. t. auripectus Stresemann, 1941 – SC & SE Sulawesi.
  • Descriptive notes

    c. 32–35 cm. Forehead bright golden, crown grey tipped bronzy green; broad purple collar on hindneck; face and throat pale grey; upper breast and sides of neck darker... read more


    Poorly known; described as recalling a Hoopoe (Upupa epops) but softer and lower-pitched... read more


    Primary forest in lowlands, hills and mountains, from sea-level up to 2000 m.

    Food and feeding

    Reported to feed on seeds and fruits; like other members of genus, takes some insects and probably other invertebrates as well. Forages on... read more


    Nest with egg reported in Nov; no other information.


    No information on dispersal. Almost exclusively terrestrial; when flushed, flies only a short... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally endangered. Very little information available on status; described as being locally moderately common. Uncommon in Dumoga-Bone National Park in Minahasa... read more

    Recommended citation

    Baptista, L.F., Trail, P.W., Horblit, H.M., Christie, D.A., Kirwan, G.M. & Boesman, P. (2020). Sulawesi Ground-dove (Gallicolumba tristigmata). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 28 January 2020).