Family Hornbills (Bucerotidae)

Critically Endangered

Sulu Hornbill (Anthracoceros montani)


French: Calao des Sulu German: Suluhornvogel Spanish: Cálao de las Sulu

Buceros Montani


, 1880,

Sulu Archipelago


Relationships with congeners uncertain. Monotypic.


Sulu Archipelago: certainly present on Tawitawi, probably extinct on Jolo and almost certainly extinct on Sanga-Sanga#R. Records from mid-1990s#R on Tandubatu, Dundangan and Baliungan.

Descriptive notes

50 cm. Medium-sized hornbill, all black but for white tail. Male with bill and blade-like casque black; bare skin around eye and bare throat skin black; eyes creamy. Female... read more


A fast series of nasal cackles ending in a few louder notes “ca-ca-ca-ca-ca-CRAW-CIAW”, with the... read more


Evergreen dipterocarp forest, in lowland and highlands.

Food and feeding

Reported to eat fruit, small lizards and some insects, but few details. Recorded in pairs at fruiting trees in forest, or visiting isolated... read more


No documented information. On Tawitawi, pair with immature seen in Sept; nest in tall, large-diameter tree; reported clutch size 2, with... read more


Probably sedentary.

Status and conservation

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED. CITES II. Restricted-range species now seemingly confined to Tawitawi: present in Sulu Archipelago EBA. Considered common to abundant in late 19th... read more

Recommended citation

Kemp, A.C., Boesman, P. & Sharpe, C.J. (2019). Sulu Hornbill (Anthracoceros montani). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 6 December 2019).