Family Hornbills (Bucerotidae)


Sumba Hornbill (Rhyticeros everetti)


French: Calao de Sumba German: Sumbahornvogel Spanish: Cálao de la Sumba
Other common names: Sumba Wreathed Hornbill

Rhytidoceros everetti


, 1897,





Sumba (W Lesser Sunda Is).

Descriptive notes

55 cm. Small, black hornbill, long all-black tail distinctive. Male head and neck dark rufous, darker on crown and nape; bill pale yellow, red near base; low wreathed casque... read more


A fast series of nasal barks “kokokokok....” at a rate of c. 8–10 notes per second.


Patches of primary deciduous forest, but extends into secondary forest and open parkland with... read more

Food and feeding

Only fruit recorded in diet, especially figs, but probably takes some small animals. Usually in pairs, but up to 15 may gather at fruiting... read more


Little known. Copulation observed in Sept, probably lays in Oct–Nov. Nest in natural cavity 10–23 m up in large live deciduous... read more


Irregular local movements between feeding and roosting sites; up to 70 birds may gather at roost. read more

Status and conservation

VULNERABLE. CITES II. Restricted to single island, on which forest habitat suitable for hornbills has declined by 60%, to c. 1732 km2 (c. 10% of island’s surface area... read more

Recommended citation

Kemp, A.C. & Boesman, P. (2019). Sumba Hornbill (Rhyticeros everetti). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 22 September 2019).