Orinoco River, Venezuela.
Suggested as belonging to the putative M. atricapilla species-group (see that species, below), but large overlap in range with M. vermiculatus. From vocal evidence and DNA-sequencing appears closest to M. atricapilla, and has even been treated as conspecific; more distantly related to M. choliba than previously thought. Race usta has been treated as a separate species#R#R; compared with nominate, however, differences in morphology appear to be minimal and vocal dissimilarities, although seemingly great, perhaps not constant, and convergent where the two converge geographically#R; confirmation of reported differences in plumage and in eye colour#R needed, and further study and analysis of vocalizations required (two song types exist, but whether variation clinal or not is not known#R), in order to clarify distinctiveness of taxa. Two subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!