In the past was sometimes treated as conspecific with A. godlewskii. Variation largely clinal, in N becoming smaller and paler from W to E, and in S becoming larger and greyer from NW Africa to Greece and then smaller and greyer E of there; naming of geographical races considered unwarranted, contra HBW, thus griseus (described from Turkestan), kastschenkoi (Novosibirsk, W Siberia) and boehmii (Damavand, NC Iran) all subsumed within nominate for want of consistency in the characters used in their delimitation#R. Monotypic.
C & S Europe (Denmark and S Baltic S to Mediterranean countries) and NW Africa (Morocco E to Tunisia, possibly also SW Mauritania and NW Libya) E to NW & SC Mongolia and NW & SW Kazakhstan, and, in S, to N Afghanistan, Dzhungarskiy Alatau Mts, and extreme NW China (Tien Shan, in N Xinjiang); also locally in Middle East (Lebanon, S Syria, N Israel). Winters in sub-Saharan Africa (mainly in the Sahel), Arabia and SW Asia.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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