P. L. Sclater, 1857,
Córdoba, Veracruz, southern Mexico.
Plumage similarities have suggested to most authors that this and S. rufigularis are sister-species. Apparent elevational parapatry of highland race andinus and lowland obscurior suggests that more than one species may be involved; recent molecular study#R indicates as many as five cryptic species present in group, namely S. mexicanus (with pullus) and S. macconnelli (with bahiae), the three remaining taxa (andinus, obscurior, peruvianus) being upgraded each to a full species. Vocal analysis currently under way to support the molecular work, but brief review of evidence suggests that only races mexicanus and pullus strongly different in voice (slower pace (2–3), longer notes (2), higher max. frequency and very different note shape, total score of 4–5)#R; to date, no plumage or morphometric characters appear to support this potential split. Racial identity of birds from W slope of E Andes in Colombia uncertain; tentatively included with peruvianus, but may belong with andinus. Proposed races certus (Guatemala) and anomalus (E Panama) are considered undiagnosable. Seven subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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