Family Starlings (Sturnidae)


Tenggara Hill Myna (Gracula venerata)


French: Mainate de Sumbawa German: Sundabeo Spanish: Miná venerado

Gracula venerata


, 1850,



Hitherto treated (in recent decades) as conspecific with G. religiosa (including G. robusta and G. indica), but differs in its dark green vs dark blue gloss (2); wattle extending in double line up central hindcrown (otherwise present only in G. indica but with different structure) (3); distinctive raised bilateral lumps on frontal part of crown (2); bill as large as in G. robusta (with which equal in size), although in other proportions closer to nominate G. religiosa (ns); and voice, reportedly involving several different calls#R (allow at least 1). Birds from Flores, described as race mertensi, have been considered inseparable from those in rest of range, but are fractionally larger than birds on Sumbawa to W and on Alor and Pantar to E. Monotypic.


Lesser Sundas from Lombok and Sumbawa E to Pantar and Alor.

Descriptive notes

26–30 cm. Large black myna with prominent bare yellow patches of skin on head. Adult has large bare yellow patch below eye, bare skin behind each eye larger and on hindneck... read more


Vocalizations slightly different from those of G. religiosa, described as a... read more


Occurs in monsoon forest and forest patches, also forest edge and clearings. Lowlands and hills,... read more

Food and feeding

Diet mainly fruit, also nectar; insects taken at times, as is other small animal food, even small vertebrates (lizards). Figs (Ficus... read more


Almost nothing known. Season Oct–Mar on Flores. Nest placed in pre-existing tree hole. Lays 2–3 sky-blue eggs, size 37·3–41·8 mm × 24·8–27·... read more


Resident; some local movements likely in connection with the fruiting of trees.

Status and conservation

ENDANGERED. Rare, and locally extinct in many parts of its range. This myna has for long been subjected to trapping in large numbers throughout its range for the cagebird... read more

Recommended citation

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N., Christie, D.A. & Kirwan, G.M. (2020). Tenggara Hill Myna (Gracula venerata). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 25 February 2020).