Family Pigeons, Doves (Columbidae)

Critically Endangered

Tooth-billed Pigeon (Didunculus strigirostris)


French: Diduncule strigirostre German: Zahntaube Spanish: Paloma manumea
Other common names: Manumea

Gnathodon strigirostris


, 1845,

Australia; error = Upolu, Samoa




Upolu and Savaii (Samoa).

Descriptive notes

31–38 cm; 400 g. Robust, with a short tail; unique bill is stout and curved, with two notches and three projections in either side of lower mandible, yellow, red at... read more


Advertising call by male is delivered from atop tree, a drawn-out “oooo” that often rises and falls... read more


Found in both primary and secondary native forest. It was widely distributed in forests on... read more

Food and feeding

The bill of this species is adapted to feed on Wild Mahogany Dysoxylum spp. fruits, although first-year birds apparently... read more


Virtually nothing known. Breeding activity spans March to November, mostly April to September. Nest reported to be well hidden in... read more


No information on movements. Flies strongly when flushed from the ground, rising with loudly... read more

Status and conservation

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED. The Manumea, sometimes nicknamed the Samoan Dodo, is the National Bird of the Country. Nevertheless, the conservation status of this species has... read more

Recommended citation

Baptista, L.F., Trail, P.W., Horblit, H.M., Kirwan, G.M., Sharpe, C.J. & Garcia, E.F.J. (2019). Tooth-billed Pigeon (Didunculus strigirostris). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 7 December 2019).