Family Pigeons, Doves (Columbidae)

Critically Endangered

Tooth-billed Pigeon (Didunculus strigirostris)


French: Diduncule strigirostre German: Zahntaube Spanish: Paloma manumea
Other common names: Manumea

Gnathodon strigirostris


, 1845,

Australia; error = Upolu, Samoa




Upolu and Savaii (Samoa).

Descriptive notes

31–38 cm; 400 g. Robust, with a short tail; unique bill is stout and curved, with two notches and three projections in either side of lower mandible, yellow, red at... read more


Advertising call by male is delivered from atop tree, a drawn-out “oooo” that often rises and falls... read more


Found in both primary and secondary native forest, but nowadays apparently almost exclusively... read more

Food and feeding

Reported to be partial to wild plantains and to aerial tubers of wild yam Dioscorea bulbifera; also seeds of wild mahogany (... read more


Virtually nothing known. Nest reported to be well hidden in thick foliage about 5–12 m above the ground, though no detailed... read more


No information on movements. Flies strongly when flushed from the ground, rising with loudly... read more

Status and conservation

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED. Population estimated to be 5000–7000 birds in mid-1980s, when listed as Vulnerable, but this may have been an overoptimistic reckoning; listed as... read more

Recommended citation

Baptista, L.F., Trail, P.W., Horblit, H.M., Kirwan, G.M. & Sharpe, C.J. (2018). Tooth-billed Pigeon (Didunculus strigirostris). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 22 March 2018).