Family Hummingbirds (Trochilidae)

Least Concern

Tourmaline Sunangel (Heliangelus exortis)


French: Héliange tourmaline German: Grünband-Sonnennymphe Spanish: Colibrí turmalina

Trochilus exortis


, 1840,

Guaduas, Colombia


Closely related to H. micraster and often regarded as conspecific (see below for diagnosis). Coloration of throat region of female subject to much variation; nevertheless, most patterns of variation appear irregular and not correlated with distribution, and no races can therefore be determined. Monotypic.


Andes of Colombia (all three ranges) and E slope in Ecuador (S to Morona-Santiago).

Descriptive notes

10–11 cm; male 3·5–8·5 g, female 4–5·2 g. Bill straight, medium-sized, blackish. Male dark shining green above with a narrow glittering... read more


Presumed song a repeated series of single notes at a rate of c. 1 note/second, typically a few high... read more


Interior of humid and wet pre-montane forest and forest borders, most abundant in dense mossy... read more

Food and feeding

Territorial and rather aggressive. Forages rather low down in open or shrubby areas and forest borders, and can often be observed perching... read more


Records suggest season in Mar–Aug. Courtship display has been observed in Jul. Clutch size 2; incubation by female.


Sedentary with occasional movements into upper tropical zone (Colombia).

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened (Least Concern). CITES II. Locally fairly common. Occurs in several protected areas throughout its range such as Munchique National Park (Colombia)... read more

Recommended citation

Heynen, I. & Boesman, P. (2020). Tourmaline Sunangel (Heliangelus exortis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 10 April 2020).