J. K. Townsend, 1837,
forests of Columbia River = Fort Vancouver, Clarke County, Washington, USA.
Closely related to S. chrysoparia, S. virens, S. occidentalis and S. nigrescens; probably the sister-species of S. occidentalis, and they have occasionally been treated as conspecific. Hybridizes frequently with latter species (producing fertile young) in Oregon and Washington#R#R; hybridization also with S. nigrescens, S. virens and S. coronata recorded. Birds breeding on Queen Charlotte Is (and wintering in Oregon and California) average slightly shorter-winged than others, and has been suggested that they warrant subspecific recognition; further study required. Monotypic.
Alaska and NW Canada (S from Yukon Territory, E to S Alberta and [rare] SW Saskatchewan) S in USA to Oregon and Idaho. Migrates mainly to region from N Mexico S to Nicaragua, also in smaller numbers S to Panama; also to coastal W USA and NW Baja California (NW Mexico).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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