Family Pipits and Wagtails (Motacillidae)

Least Concern

Tree Pipit (Anthus trivialis)


French: Pipit des arbres German: Baumpieper Spanish: Bisbita arbóreo

Alauda trivialis


, 1758,



Appears to be very closely related to A. hodgsoni. E populations, slightly larger in size and paler in colour, with larger chest streaks and less pointed wing than nominate, sometimes treated as race sibiricus, but variation evidently clinal; similarly, proposed races salomonseni (from Scotland) and differens (NE Turkey) included in nominate; described race burzil (Kashmir) considered indistinguishable from haringtoni, and race schlueteri has sometimes also been synonymized with latter#R. Three subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • A. t. trivialis (Linnaeus, 1758) – N & W Europe (except Iceland and Ireland) E to L Baikal and middle R Aldan (possibly to upper R Kolyma) and, in S, from N Mediterranean and N Turkey E to Transcaucasus and N Iran; winters in sub-Saharan Africa and in India.
  • A. t. schlueteri O. Kleinschmidt, 1920 – mountains from E Kazakhstan and NW China (Tarbagatay and Dzungharskiy Alatau) S to Tien Shan and (possibly) E Afghanistan; winters in C India.
  • A. t. haringtoni Witherby, 1917 – NW Himalayas (Kashmir E to Lahul); winters in Indian Subcontinent.
  • Descriptive notes

    14–15 cm; 15–39 g. Slim, medium-sized pipit with strongly streaked breast, rather heavy bill. Nominate race has buffish supercilium and lores, brown and buff ear-... read more


    Song, from treetop or in flight, up to 8 seconds long, a series of trills and repeated notes, has... read more


    Breeding habitats include woodland edge, open woodland, cleared woodland and young conifer... read more

    Food and feeding

    Food includes a range of invertebrates, mostly insects; also some plant material in winter. Nestlings fed exclusively with invertebrates.... read more


    Season late Apr to Aug in NW Europe, May to end Jul in India; often two broods, rarely three. Monogamous, occasionally polygamous;... read more


    Long-distance migrant. W populations of nominate race migrate to Afrotropics, spending non-breeding... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Common throughout range. European population recently estimated at c. 17,000,000 pairs, excluding c. 10,000,000 pairs in European... read more

    Recommended citation

    Tyler, S. (2020). Tree Pipit (Anthus trivialis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 20 February 2020).