J. F. Gmelin, 1788,
In past, occasionally suggested to be conspecific with P. lactea. Hitherto treated as conspecific with P. maior. Remaining races form two groups, i.e. the “bilineata group” (also including superciliaris, brodkorbi and cinericia) and the “plumbea group” (with all other races); both share typical song of a series of more or less identical notes, which tends to reduce the possibility of their representing two species. Relative distributions of nominate race and innotata in E Brazil (roughly from C Pará E to WC Maranhão) unclear; more study needed. Records from E Ecuador and adjacent N Peru (NW Loreto) tentatively referred to race parvirostris; locality of a specimen labelled as this race from W Brazil (C Amazonas) is roughly equidistant from localities represented by innotata, nominate and parvirostris. Original description of cinericia based on comparison with bilineata, rather than with adjacent mainland superciliaris; study needed to clarify if cinericia is a synonym of latter. Eleven subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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