French: Paruline à joues noires German: Elfenwaldsänger Spanish: Parula pitiayumí
Subspecies and Distribution
S. p. insularis
(Lawrence, 1871) – Tres Marias Parula – Tres Marías Is, off Nayarit (W Mexico).
S. p. pulchra
(Brewster, 1889) – W Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental from S Sonora and Chihuahua S to Oaxaca); northernmost breeding birds may move S locally in winter.
S. p. nigrilora
(Coues, 1878) – extreme S USA (lower Rio Grande, in extreme S Texas) and E Mexico (Sierra Madre Oriental from Coahuila S to E San Luis Potosí and N Veracruz).
S. p. inornata
(S. F. Baird, 1864) – S Mexico (S Veracruz and Chiapas) S through N Guatemala to W Panama, as well as E Panama (Darién area) and adjacent NW Colombia.
S. p. cirrha
(Wetmore, 1957) – Coiba I, off S Panama.
S. p. pacifica
(Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884) – #RPacific slope of Andes from SW Colombia (Nariño) S to NW Peru (Cajamarca), and from C Peru (Junín) S to W Bolivia (La Paz and Cochabamba).
S. p. alarum
(Chapman, 1924) – E Ecuador and N Peru (W of Amazon Basin).
S. p. pitiayumi
(Vieillot, 1817) – Tropical Parula – Andes of Colombia, N Venezuela (including Margarita I), and Trinidad, S through S Venezuela (tepuis region), the Guianas and adjacent N Brazil, C & E Brazil S to E Bolivia, N & NE Argentina and Uruguay.
11 cm; 5–8·1 g (insularis). Male nominate race has bright blue-grey head and upperparts, with black lores and ear-coverts, bronze-olive patch on mantle... read more
Song varies slightly throughout range, but typically an accelerating buzzy trill at different... read more
Occurs in various forest types, including deciduous forest, gallery forest, humid submontane and... read more
Food and feeding
Feeds mainly on insects and other invertebrates; also takes small berries and protein corpuscles of Cecropia, Tapirira... read more
Season protracted in tropics, at least Jan–Oct in Colombia and Feb–Oct across Ecuador (locally probably more restricted); more... read more
Mainly sedentary; birds breeding in highlands of Mexico may winter at lower altitudes. Vagrant to... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Generally fairly common to common throughout its range. Has declined in recent decades in S USA (Texas), and is now rare there. In... read more
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