Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1833,
northern Lebanon between Beirut, Baalbek and Tripoli#R.
Sister to H. olivetorum, the two being fairly close to the pair formed by H. polyglotta and H. icterina. E populations (E from E Iran) sometimes separated as race magnirostris on basis mainly of slightly paler upperparts, but appear indistinguishable from birds elsewhere in range. Monotypic.
Locally in C & S Turkey, Syria, Israel, extreme S Caucasus, Iran, and from SW Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan E in mountains to Tajikistan, Afghanistan and SW Pakistan; winters in E Africa.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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