P. L. Sclater, 1862,
Birds from extreme NW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá) described as race pifanoi, supposedly with somewhat more blackish crown, but difference virtually imperceptible and may represent individual variation. Monotypic.
Sierra de Perijá and Andes of NW Venezuela (Mérida), Colombia, E Ecuador and Peru (Cajamarca and San Martín S, locally, to Puno).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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