Lago de Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela.
Formerly treated as a race of M. ferox (see that species and M. panamensis). Tobago birds appear darker dorsally, but difference slight and constancy of this character untested; subspecific separation as insulicola unwarranted at present. Monotypic.
Apparently three, possibly four, disjunct populations. Caribbean lowlands of Colombia (N Sucre E to Guajira), and E of Andes in Norte de Santander (Cucutá); NW & N Venezuela (Zulia E to Miranda, S to Apure); also NE & E Venezuela (Margarita I; NE Bolívar) and Tobago. Records from Zulia (Cerro Alto del Cedro, La Esperanza) may be referable to Colombian population (to W) or to Venezuelan ones (to E), or may represent a separate population.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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