Volcán de Irazú, Costa Rica.
Nominate and race torridus have often been considered colour morphs of a single, variable taxon; alternatively, each has been treated as a separate species, torridus showing one major difference in colour of frontal shield (amethyst-grey vs glowing pink or red); race simoni has been treated either as a separate species or as a race of S. ardens, but in reality its distinctness from nominate flammula is not great. On basis of morphology, behaviour and breeding distributions, the three forms are perhaps best considered races of a single species; variation in gorget colour complicated and at present still imperfectly known, some differences apparently being age-related. Described form S. underwoodii is a hybrid between nominate race and S. scintilla. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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