#R, New York State, USA.
Sometimes placed in Melodivireo (see V. philadelphicus). Often considered conspecific with V. leucophrys. Hybridization with V. olivaceus reported from Nevada (SW USA). Nominate race has been treated as a single monotypic species, the other races together forming a separate species, on basis of alleged degree of reproductive isolation of the two in overlap zone in S Canada (Alberta) and some vocal differences#R, as well as molecular data#R; further study required. Status in EC Mexico (EC & N Puebla) unclear: a race sympatricus was proposed for a claimed population there, but species is not known to breed in that part of Mexico#R. Proposed race leucopolius (Warner Mts, in SE Oregon) included in swainsoni; petrorus (Wyoming, in WC USA) and connectens (Guerrero, in SW Mexico) both subsumed into brewsteri. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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