South America = “Cayenne”.
Several markedly different song types and well-differentiated plumages suggest more than one species may be involved, but molecular data show gene flow between some neighbouring, morphologically distinctive races. Recent analysis of samples from 63 localities in eight Amazonian areas of endemism separated by major rivers indicates allopatric lineages with high degree of genetic differentiation across opposite banks of major rivers, with high levels of both paraphyly and genetic differentiation evident within currently recognized races#R. Analysis of vocalizations indicates four distinct subspecies groups#R: “pectoralis group” (Middle America/Chocó), song a series of 8–20 notes, increasing in amplitude and pitch; “spirurus group” (W & N Amazonia/Guiana), 5–12 wheezy notes increasing in amplitude and pitch (burry tonal quality in most of range), delivered at slower speed than song of previous group; monotypic “albigularis group” (SW Amazonia), 2–5 wheezy notes (more when excited) increasing in amplitude and pitch; and “cuneatus group” (SE Amazonia E of R Madeira), song of 2 overslurred notes, emphasis on first (which is slightly longer and higher-pitched; sometimes only this note given). Birds in C Brazil E from R Tapajós tentatively placed with paraensis, but those from E bank of R Xingu said to be intermediate between that and inornatus; more work needed to clarify limits of races. Characters of rufigularis possibly lie within range of variation of castelnaudii; proposed race sublestus (S Central America) included in pectoralis (birds from Nicaragua and Costa Rica intermediate between the two), which intergrades with pallidulus in E Panama (Caribbean slope in SE Colón). Original description of race castelnaudii in issue dated 1855, but not published till Jun 1856#R#R. Thirteen subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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