See E. ypiranganus; until recently considered conspecific with E. duidae. Races fall roughly into a N “sphenurus group” and single-taxon S “herbicola group”. In HBW these groups said to differ in plumage and voice, but no constant plumage differences apparent between nominate and at least sphenurus. In contrast, vocal difference is striking, song of N group starting with one or a few “pit” notes followed by 2–3 short complex notes, of which usually two are nearly identical, song of S group variable but never with nearly identical notes (score at least 2) but always 1–2 complex slurred notes (score for length at least 2)#R; and in playback experiments nominate does not react to songs from apurensis. Recorded evidence indicates that birds in N Pará and in S Ecuador and N Peru, all previously assigned to sphenurus, sing like nominate; thus the Amazon represents a divide between the two groups. Nominate is larger (effect size for wing vs sphenurus 2.34; score 2), which with at least 4 for voice strongly suggests two species are involved; research needed to decide the issue and validate subspecific assignations. Race lucaris may be synonym of hypochondriacus; proposed race floresae, described from Panama (Cerro Flores, in E Chiriquí), appears to be based on an immature specimen, and is treated as a synonym of hypochondriacus. Five subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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