Dusky Sound, South Island, New Zealand.
Includes described form G. troglodytes, now regarded as a black morph of present species. Considerable geographical variation, with up to eight races accepted in the past; situation complicated by extensive individual variation, especially in nominate race and scotti. Four subspecies currently recognized.
Introduced to many islands: greyi to Kapiti, Rakitu, Mokoia and Kawau, and to Bay of Islands; nominate to Kapiti, Chatham and Macquarie (now extinct on last); hectori to Chatham; and scotti to Solander and other outlying islands off Stewart I, and also to Kapiti and Macquarie (now extinct on latter).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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