near Fort Croghan, North Dakota, USA.
Geographical variation in colour saturation apparently clinal from E to W, with darkest birds in far NW of range named as confluenta (described from Seattle, Washington). Monotypic.
Canada (from S British Columbia and NC Alberta E to SW & SE Ontario) and S in W USA (E to Michigan, extreme NW New York and W Texas) to Mexico (S to N Baja California, NW Sonora and C plateau in Guanajuato); in winter extends farther S into Mexico and E in USA to Mississippi R and the Gulf Coast.
Introduced on Kauai (Hawaiian Is).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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