Generally thought to be closest to M. seductus, M. cooperi and M. asio, and often considered to include first two of those as races. Formerly treated as conspecific with M. asio, and the two occasionally interbreed where ranges meet or overlap (separated by 60 km in Oklahoma “panhandle”, slightly sympatric in Colorado Springs, broadly overlapping in Texas, areas of contact in Mexico undetermined)#R; recent genetic studies, however, indicate that present species and M. asio form two distinct monophyletic clades#R and should therefore be treated as separate species, as suggested by vocal and morphological studies. Has reportedly hybridized with M. trichopsis in Arizona#R. Race vinaceus has been proposed as approaching species level (possibly with xantusi as a race); study needed. Geographical limits of listed races uncertain, with intergrades at boundaries; ranges given below based on a recent in-depth treatment#R. Many additional races described, but often known from few specimens, and some probably reflect individual variation, or represent morphs (or perhaps even hybrids): saturatus and brewsteri included in nominate; clazus and quercinus in bendirei; mychophilus, gilmani, inyoensis and cineraceus in aikeni; sortilegus in suttoni; and sinaloensis in vinaceus. Nine subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!